1. See George Stratton, “Some Preliminary Experiments on Vision without Inversion of the Retinal Image,” The Psychology Review 3, no. 6 (1896): 611-17; “Vision without Inversion of the Retinal Image,” The Psychology Review 4, no. 4 (1897); 341-60; and 4, no. 5 (1897): 463-81.
  2. David E. J. Linden, Ulrich Kallenbach, Armin Heinecke, Wolf Singer, and Rainer Goebel, “The Myth of Upright Vision: A Psychophysical and Functional Imaging Study of Adaptation to Inverting Spectacles,” Perception 28 (1999): 479. Linden et al. repeat the assertion that Stratton claimed to see the world in its proper orientation, with his goggles on, during the sixth day of his experiment. A careful reading of Stratton’s notes, however, indicates that he claimed no such thing.
  3. Unless otherwise noted, I am using the New International Version for Scripture quotations throughout.
  4. See, e.g., Donald B. Kraybill, The Upside-Down Kingdom (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1978); Allen Verhey, The Great Reversal: Ethics and the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984).
  5. Bruce Malina, The Social Gospel of Jesus: The Kingdom of God in Mediterranean Perspective (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001), 1. “Kingdom of heaven” and “kingdom of God” are interchangeable constructions in the Gospel of Matthew.
  6. Hays, Moral Vision, 167. I believe that the excursus to chap. 7 (158–68), ostensibly giving further justification for Hays’s Pauline starting point, thoroughly undercuts his position.
  7. Hays, Moral Vision, 166.
  8. Allen Verhey, Remembering Jesus: Christian Community, Scripture, and the Moral Life (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002); Glen H. Stassen and David P. Gushee, Kingdom Ethics: Following Jesus in Contemporary Context (Downers Grove: IVP, 2003; 2nd ed., Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2016); Richard A. Burridge, Imitating Jesus: An Inclusive Approach to New Testament Ethics (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007).
  9. Echrisen, a verbal form of the noun Christos, is used in the Septuagint (abbreviated as LXX), the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible.
  10. Euaggelizasthai, “to preach the gospel,” a verbal form of the noun euaggelion, the gospel/ good news.
  11. Gerhard Friedrich,“ euaggelizomai,” in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (hereafter TDNT), trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964), 2: 722–23.
  12. TDNT, 2: 724–25; see also Hans-Josef Klauck, The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religions, trans. Brian McNeil (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003), 298.
  13. S. R. F. Price, Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 75, 220; Klauck, Religious Context, 286, 291–93.
  14. Son of man is a Hebrew idiom meaning “human being”; see Job 25: 6; Ps. 8: 4; 144: 3.
  15. A verb form related to the noun euaggelion, in the Septuagint (LXX).
  16. See Joel B. Green, “Kingdom of God/Heaven,” in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, ed. Joel B. Green, Jeannine K. Brown, and Nicholas Perrin, 2nd ed. (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2013), 468, 476.
  17. Albert Swing, The Theology of Albrecht Ritschl together with Instruction in the Christian Religion by Albrecht Ritschl (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901), 178–79, 239–40; Albrecht Ritschl, The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation, trans. H. R. Mackintosh and A. B. Macaulay (Clifton, NJ: Reference Book Publishers, 1966), 30–31, 296; see also Bruce Chilton, Pure Kingdom: Jesus’ Vision of God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996), 9–10; Green, “Kingdom of God,” 469.
  18. Ritschl, Christian Doctrine of Justification, 280.
  19. Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianizing the Social Order (New York: Macmillan, 1919), 78–79; Benson Y. Landis, A Rauschenbusch Reader: The Kingdom of God and the Social Gospel (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957), 111–19. For the influence of this social-reformist perspective on God’s kingdom over the course of American history, see H. Richard Niebuhr, The Kingdom of God in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1937), 150–63.
  20. Henry R. Van Til, The Calvinistic Concept of Culture (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1960; repr. 2001), 59.
  21. Van Til, Calvinistic Concept of Culture, 44, 213.
  22. Niebuhr, Kingdom of God, 56.
  23. The quotation is from Eliot’s Christian Commonwealth, or the Civil Policy of the Rising Kingdom of Jesus Christ, published in 1659; cited in Niebuhr, Kingdom of God, 131.
  24. For an extensive recent treatment of this issue, see Richard T. Hughes, Christian America and the Kingdom of God (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009).
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